There are several overarching questions and concerns that are exercising the international community, some of which include:
- How did it get to this stage with Ukraine and Russia now on the brink of war?
- What can be done to assuage Russian concerns and de-escalate the situation?
- What does it mean for the longer term for Russia’s neighbours from the Narva region in north-east Estonia through to the ‘stans in the east and even Moldova in the south-east where there are sizeable Russian populations (if not majorities as in NE Estonia)?
- And in turn for the EU that now houses several former members of the Comecon bloc and for its own energy security given the continued reliance on Russian gas and for financial centres such as London a reliable diet of Russian capital – legal or otherwise – as well as listings?
- Concurrently how can the EU utilise its very successful soft power refined during the Accession Process since the late 90s that has helped former planned economies to successfully transform into functioning, democratic, market economies?
- And the Economics: how does the putative conflict between the countries likely to affect the economies of these two countries – both over the short and medium term - and what are the potential spillover effects onto neighbouring economies?
As someone who has advised worked on both countries (inc. the Crimea) since the mid-90s I have my own views on these questions from first-hand experience and various writings.
In this blog entry I will focus only on the last question as it is perhaps the underlying and central cause of the current malaise. Although events over the last few months seemed to accelerate toward the end till the eventual exit of the now-former president Yanukovych, to many of us long-time Ukraine-watchers the situation had been steadily worsening with gross mismanagement of the economy and in effect a social mis-contract between the political-economic elite that are essentially the one-and-same to effectively asset-strip the state, allow rampant corruption and in effect created the disconnect and discontent that so fuelled the anger on the street.
Result: macroeconomic instability with the economy in recession since 2012 but which was buoyed previously due to demand for steel from Russia and globally, a large current account deficit, fiscal mismanagement and with FX reserves below 90-day cover.
In the last week has seen the Ukraininan currency, the Hryvna bombed and Ukrainian assets nosedived as investors rushed to the Exit doors. The threat of bank runs has been temporarily halted through restrictions on withdrawals but the threat of meltdown remains a tail risk without external support. The necessary devaluation through an open float of the currency will push up imported inflation and further reduce real incomes and purchasing power.
Though Russia has too been hit it is sitting on a half trillion dollar reserve base inclusive of oil funds and will ride out the storm…one for another blog.
Ukraine will, however, need rapid stabilisation and to their credit the big guns in the form of the IMF and the EU are already making preparations for rapid-response loans and budget support using the experience from recent years in the Eurozone and elsewhere.
The key question beyond short term plugging of financing gaps will be whether Ukraine will be willing and able to undertake genuine reforms to ensure sustainability. This in turn will depend on how the Russo-Ukrainian spat plays out – the longer the duration, the more costly the impact and the reconstruction/redevelopment efforts.
It will also depend on political will and all the bonhomie rhetoric from some western capitals about the Ukrainian parliament being the people’s senate ignores the rather unsavoury truth that it does unfortunately retain the reputation of being a Members Club for crooks. Whether this group in the Rada has the courage or willingness to sanction broad-based reforms remains to be seen, particularly difficult reforms to balance the fiscal books through necessary but potentially difficult political amendments to the energy deficit that has been soaking close to 8% of GDP in subsidies. A fresh election may well be required to give the new government a genuine mandate.
The so-called Orange Revolution in 2004-05 was pyrrhic and a gross disappointment for those that saw it as a precursor of a fundamental redress of governance in Ukraine. Unfortunately, and despite significant good-will and dollops of western assistance thereafter there was little real appetite in Kiev to modify the status quo and despite some sterling efforts to kick-start reform at a regional levels.
Hopefully, the penny has dropped for many of these rent-seeking members of the elite that political stability and effective economic governance go hand-in-hand….and hopefully the sabre-rattling from Moscow will cease….and the hit on the RTS, the rouble and share prices in energy stocks in Russia may well catalyse this.